Anti-discrimination Laws around the World

Here we have summarized the anti-discrimination laws around the world of the nations with embassies supporting Pride House Tokyo, and the status of legal prohibitions on discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. It is basically a list of names of the laws, the years the laws were enacted, or/and an explanation of any equivalent laws which may have been passed.

Country Law Year


The Employment Equality Acts 1998-2015
The Equal Status Acts 2000-2015


The United Kingdom

The Equality Act 2010



Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act


In 2013, the Federal Parliament added sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status as protected attributes to the existing Sex Discrimination Act 1984. It also broadened the definition of marital status, thereby extending protections to same-sex couples. Prior to this, the Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws—General Law Reform) Act 2008 had already eliminated discrimination agaist same-sex couples in 68 federal laws.


The Netherlands

General Equal Treatment Act
In Dutch: Algemene Wet Gelijke Behandeling


This act covers general treatment not for LGBT only, but also covers religion or belief, political orientation, race, gender, nationality and marital status. only)

(amended in 2020)


1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


2. The Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code

Added sexual orientation (1996) and gender identity or expression (2017)



Prohibition of Discrimination Act (2003-2009)
Discrimination Act (2009- replaced from the previous legislation for making it more comprehensive )


(Discrimination on the grounds of homosexual orientation was included in the previsions of Swedish Penal Code. Later changed to "sexual orientation")


Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution proclaims the right to equality and nondiscrimination on the grounds of birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social condition or circumstances. Article 9.2, in turn, ratifies public authorities’ obligation to further conditions that will ensure that individuals, and the groups of which they form a part, enjoy real and effective equality. There is no national LGBT antidiscrimination law, but laws have been enacted in most of the Spanish autonomous regions (Andalucía, Aragón, Cataluña, Navarra, Madrid, Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Baleares, Canarias, Murcia y el País Vasco) to protect the rights of the LGTB population.



Act on amendment to the Civil Penal Code and the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination



General Equal Treatment Law
In German: "Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG)


New Zealand

Human Rights Act



Anti-Discrimination law



Non-discrimination Act



Federal Law to Prevent and Eliminate Discrimination


European Union

Since 2000, the European Council adopted Directive (2000/78/EC) which establish a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. By this, discrimination based on sexual orientation when working, applying jobs, having promotion and training have been prohibited.
Article 21 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (the Charter)also explicitly prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Related link

The EU charter will cease to have effect in UK law after Brexit. Article 21 of the charter, inter alia, prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation.

  • Marriage Equality Laws around the World
  • Anti-discrimination Laws around the World
  • Transgender Laws around the World

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